Using and Understanding Nonverbal Communication

DMNonverbalCommunication - See What You've Been Missing! Q & A - Humitnell Originally published on Psychology Today by Jeff Thompson, a Ph.D. candidate researching nonverbal communication and mediation at Griffith University Law School. You can follow Jeff on twitter here.

As someone currently researching nonverbal communication, I have happily (yes- happily!) read many books, journal articles, magazine articles, and blog postings in regards to this broad subject. The new book by David Matsumoto, Mark Frank, Hyi Sung Hwang titled Nonverbal Communication blends nonverbal communication research with how professionals have used this knowledge to excel in there profession. This includes law, negotiation, medical, marketing and more.

The book is available from Sage. Nonverbal Communication can easily be considered a hybrid book of research and practical use of nonverbal communication in addition to being ground breaking. It includes research chapters with ample citations that are complimented later on in the book with chapters on personal reflections of professionals that can be applied to the reader regardless of their profession.

Nonverbal Communication has been providing me valuable assistance in a variety of settings. Firstly, it is a great companion while I conduct my research, secondly it offers some great supplemental stories for the workshops I conduct, and finally it offers me in each chapter moments to discern how the information and stories provided apply to the work I do in law enforcement and conflict resolution.

Enjoy the following question and answer session I conducted recently with one of the authors, David Matsumoto via email:

1) To start things off, why did you, along with Mark Frank and Hyi Sung Hwang, write this book?

[DM] We created this book because there was a gap in the available books. Many are for scientists that don’t really translate how the scientific work can be translated into practice. Others are by practitioners, with sometimes little or no nod to the science, and in some cases discussing NVBs that have not been validated. We wrote this book so that scientists could appreciate the practical use of research, and practitioners could appreciate the science behind validated NVB indicators.

2) You explain the functions of nonverbal communication as it being able to 1) define communication, 2) regulate verbal communication, and 3) be the message itself. Can you explain what these mean?

[DM] As stated in Chapter 1, NVC serves to provide a context for communication, sometimes commenting on words. A quick smile, for instance, when discussing the disappearance of one’s children, provides additional info that defines the communication. Our voices, faces, and head gestures regulate turn-taking in conversations. And these all occur without words sometime, and thus the NVB becomes the main message themselves.

3) I see this almost as two books in one- the first section detailing recent scientific research in nonverbal communication while the second part gives examples of professionals who share their experiences on how nonverbal communication has impacted their work. Why design the book this way?

[DM] Exactly as discussed above. We wanted to have all the information about both the science and the practical application all in one place, because no other book does so.

4) What are some common misconceptions about nonverbal communication?

[DM] The big misconception about NVB and deception is that averting one’s gaze or fidgeting is associated with lying. This belief is held across cultures. Studies have tested this hypothesis, and most do not support it. It is a myth.

5) Everyone wants to be a human lie detector or more broadly, experts at nonverbal communication. You mention that the book is the first to truly highlight the strength of evidence based training in regards to the effectiveness of nonverbal communication training. How does your book highlight this and in a manner the general reader can make itapplicable to them?

[DM] The book highlights this by first highlighting what science has empirically vetted as valid indicators of emotion, deception, and other mental states. The book then goes further by having practitioners whom we have trained discuss how they have applied the skills and knowledge of empirically vetted indicators in their professional work.

6) As a follow-up, I mention [here] some things a person should look for when considering signing up for a training. What do you suggest is needed for an effective training?

[DM] Actually I think the tips you offer here are good. I would also offer that the individuals who get the most benefit from training are those who (1) see the value of NVBs, or come to see that value, (2) appreciate the science behind the empirically-validated indicators, (3) are motivated to learn and use the skills to improve their interviewing skills, and (4) are open enough to not hang onto previous ways and beliefs about NVBs

7) Will there be a sequel?

[DM] Don’t know. Hope so!

8) When is the book available and how can be find out more about you and company?

[DM] The book is currently available. You can purchase it via Amazon via this link

Conclusion: At $40, the price will seem expensive but for the value of getting basically two books in one, it is well worth the price. The book offers credible research and real anecdotal stories from professionals that demonstrates the effectiveness (and ineffectiveness) of nonverbal communication making this a true value and worthy of reading.

Past Blog: What The Artist Reveals About Nonverbal Behavior

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By Humintell Director, Dr. David Matsumoto

The Artist won an Oscar at the 2012 Academy Awards. It’s a French romantic comedy drama in the style of a black-and-white silent film. It is directed by Michel Hazanavicius, and stars Jean Dujardin and Berenice Bejo. The story takes place in Hollywood, between 1927 and 1932, and focuses on the relationship of an older silent film star (George Valentin, played by Dujardin) and a rising young actress (Peppy Miller, played by Bejo), as silent cinema falls out of fashion and is replaced by the talkies.

Admittedly, I did not see the film before it won the Oscar, but when I was on a recent overseas flight, it was available, so I decided to watch it. What a treat! But not only was the movie a delight in its own right; it demonstrated the power of nonverbal behavior, the area of psychology that I have studied for about 30 years.

The movie brought to life many of the findings uncovered by psychological research from the last half century. One of the most prominent findings in psychology is that facial expressions of emotion are universal, panculturally produced and recognized by all around the world, regardless of race, culture, ethnicity, national origin, or sex. The Artist brought these findings to life as the emotions of Valentin, Miller, and especially the director (played by John Goodman) and Clifton (played by James Cromwell) are so powerfully etched on their faces. Their ability to portray emotions so convincingly and realistically that audiences around the world could come to appreciate the depths of their feelings are not only a testament to their acting abilities, but also to the power of facial expressions to universally portray emotions.

The Artist was also a testament to many other nonverbal behaviors, including postures and gestures. Although research on these channels of nonverbal behaviors have taken somewhat of a back seat to studies of facial expressions of emotion, they have gained scientific notoriety in their own right. Contrary to facial expressions of emotion, gestures and body movements have typically been considered culture-specific, learned and enacted differently in different cultures. Our most recent research, however, has produced evidence that some very basic gestures are starting to become panculturally produced and recognized, probably due to the proliferation of mass media and the internet around the world. The fact that the actors in The Artist were able to produce such convincing performances in their gestures, body postures, and gait, are all suggestive of something potentially universal about these channels and messages as well.

At the same time close inspection of the nonverbal behaviors in The Artist reveals many areas of research that scientists have yet to explore in depth. For example, facial expressions not only convey emotions; they also convey emblematic verbal messages, much like gestures do, as well as illustrate our speech. The actors in The Artist skillfully portrayed these facial gestures as well. These non-emotional aspects of facial behaviors have not been studied as much as emotion, and are an area ripe for potential study in the future.

Of course there were some parts of the film that needed to be conveyed by words, and the directors and producers skillfully inserted text in those places. That reminded us that words are also important, and that nonverbal behaviors are not the sole channels of communication, at least for us humans. Yet, the very fact that this silent film moved so many around the world is a tribute to the power and beauty of nonverbal behavior, and students of this very interesting and important aspect of psychology and communication should all rejoice, as did laypersons alike

Incongruous Emotional Displays and Self Regulation

Image courtesy of Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/martinsphotoart/

Image courtesy of Flickr

Giggling at a funeral. Bawling at a wedding. These are both examples of incongruous emotional displays that are sometimes thought of as a little inappropriate. But are these behaviors just embarrassing slip ups? What psychological purpose could they serve?

Dr. Oriana Aragon of Yale University and her colleagues suspected that such displays might actually play an important role in overall emotional regulation. Perhaps when people are at risk of being overwhelmed by a certain emotion, having the opposite reaction helps restore emotional balance.

In a recent Huffington Post blog, author Wray Herbert explains, “Aragon and her colleagues believe that people have emotional limits. When we sense that our escalating sadness or joy is reaching an unmanageable limit — that our bodies are about to be overwhelmed physiologically — this perception triggers an incongruous emotion to balance things out. At least that’s the theory, which the scientists have been exploring in their studies.”

Aragon and her team of researchers ran a series of studies, described in a forthcoming issues of the journal Psychological Science. All of the studies supported the general idea that these incongruous emotional displays help with self-regulation but how it exactly works is unclear.

For more information on Aragon and these emotion studies, visit this link

Can Money Buy You Happiness?

It’s an age old question: can money buy happiness? It’s true to some extent: money does buy you happiness. People with higher incomes are, broadly speaking, happier than those who are struggling.

But new research digs a little deeper and suggests that happiness is determined not by how much money one earns, but rather, how one spends it. For example, giving money away makes people a lot happier than spending it all on themselves. But when they do spend money on themselves, they are more satisfied when they spend on experiences, like a vacation or music concert.

For more on this research, take a look at the video below and read the write up in the Wall Street Journal

For past blogs on money and happiness, take a look at the articles below:

Money does by Happiness?

Has the Money Tree become the Happiness Tree?

 

Emotions and the Brain

The Sentis Brain Animation Series takes you on a tour of the brain through a series of short and sharp animations.

The fifth in the series explains what is happening in our brains as we experience emotions - both the helpful and unhelpful ones! This empowering animation demonstrates that while sometimes our emotions can ‘hijack’ our rational thinking, we also have the power to manage our emotions with conscious thought.

Who is Sentis? They are a global team assisting individuals and organizations change their lives for the better and are the world leaders in the application of psychology and neuroscience to safety, leadership development, and well-being in the workplace.

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